CANCER OF THE TESTES

It is the commonest genital related cancer in men and is usually seen in men between the age of 18 and 40 years. It is commoner in Caucasian (White) than Black. Testicular cancer is highly curable.

CLINICAL FEATURES
The commonest clinical presentation is- painless testicular swelling. The swelling is irregular, firm, fixed, and does not trans illuminate.

RISK FACTORS FOR TESTICULAR CANCER
Things that could make you have testicular cancer:
1. Infertility
2. Undescended testis
3. Family history of testicular cancer
4. Exposure to diethylstilbesterol in utero

DIAGNOSIS AND EVALUATION
Before your doctor diagnose you of cancer of testes following clinical examination, he must have requested for the following investigations:
Testicular ultrasound scan
Serum alpha-fetoprotein and
Serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin

TREATMENT
Depending on the stage at presentation in the hospital, treatment options include:
Orchidectomy
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy

HOW TO EXAMINE TESTES
The best time to examine testes is during or after bath during which time the scrotum is relaxed.
Step by step guide:

  1. To examine each testicle separately, hold your penis out of the way.
  2. Hold each testicle between your thumb and fingers with both hands and roll it gently between your fingers.
  3. Look and feel for any hard lump or nodules or any change in the size, shape or consistency.

FURTHER READING:
American Cancer Society

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