CAUSES OF BIG AND SMALL HEADS

Big Head: Medical term for big head is macrocephaly. It is defined as Occipito Frontal Circumference (OFC) more than 2nd (standard deviation) above the mean for the age. It could be normal if inherited or abnormal if as a result of illness.
Abnormal big heads are often seen in children with enlarged skull, enlarged brain or accumulated fluid if the skull.


CAUSES OF BIG HEAD
Rickets: – Disease of bone in children.
Sickle cell anaemia
Hematoma
Hydrocephalus: This is an enlargement of head as a result of CSF(fluid in the brain) accumulation. In a normal child, total volume is about 50ml while in adult, it is about 150ml. The cause of hydrocephalus could be obstructive or non-obstructive.
Brain cancer
Neurofibromatosis
Meningitis
Dandy-Walker malformation

Small head: This is medically called microcephaly. It is defined as OFC more than 2SD below the mean for age. Types can be divided into primary (if inherited) and secondary (if caused by a medical problem).

CAUSES OF SMALL HEAD
Severe neonatal jaundice: This causes yellowness of eyes and skin in early stage of life.
Prematurity
Recurrent neonatal convulsion
Meningitis
Maternal phenylketonuria